Like someone said, Xamar was named because of the red sand found on the hills of Xamarweyne hence >>>Xamar. Muqdisho was the political name as it had something to do with the rulership and not necessarily the local name.
Bender Qaasim - Boosaaso.; It was a port founded by an Omani prince called Qaasim in the 1700s and some say his camel was called Boosaaso though its possible Basaaso was the correct term due the heat and sand everywhere.
Taytayleey - Balcad; During Xasan Barsanes war against foreign powers he use to have a a fort there as it was considered the gates of Moqdisho. Hence the terms Naal Taleex and Naal Taytayleey. After Independence it was made a factory to produce clothwear for the Somali National Army hence >>> Balcad.