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Female Genital Mutilation

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Female Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Fri Nov 21, 2014 10:39 am

Origins of Female Genital Mutilation

There is no doubt that FGM is used to control a female's sexuality. It is common knowledge that females are the stronger gender when it comes to sexual intercourse. Males have been fearful of this for millenia. They considered intact women hypersexual (since cultures that mutilate females also mutilate males; perhaps if the males were left intact they wouldn't have feared female sexuality).


Excerpt from Discovery News Article

While the term infibulation has its roots in ancient Rome, where female slaves had fibulae (broochs) pierced through their labia to prevent them from getting pregnant, a widespread assumption places the origins of female genital cutting in pharaonic Egypt. This would be supported by the contemporary term "pharaonic circumcision." The definition, however, might be misleading. While there's evidence of male circumcision in Old Kingdom Egypt, there is none for female.

"This was not common practice in ancient Egypt. There is no physical evidence in mummies, neither there is [sic] anything in the art or literature. It probably originated in sub-saharan Africa, and was adopted here later on," Salima Ikram, professor of Egyptology at the American University in Cairo, told Discovery News.

Historically, the first mention of male and female circumcision appears in the writings by the Greek geographer Strabo, who visited Egypt around 25 B.C. "One of the customs most zealously observed among the Egyptians is this, that they rear every child that is born, and circumcise the males, and excise the females," Strabo wrote in his 17-volume work Geographica.

A Greek papyrus dated 163 B.C. mentioned the operation being performed on girls in Memphis, Egypt, at the age when they received their dowries, supporting theories that FGM originated as a form of initiation of young women. Other writers later explained that the procedure was carried for less ritualistic reasons. According to the 6th century A.D. Greek physician Aetios, the cutting was necessary in the presence of an overly large clitoris. Seen as "a deformity and a source of shame," the clitoris would produce irritation for its "continual rubbing against the clothes" thus "stimulating the appetite for sexual intercourse. On this account, it seemed proper to the Egyptians to remove it before it became greatly enlarged, especially at that time when the girls were about to be married," Aetios wrote in The Gynecology and Obstetrics of the Sixth Century A.D.

Many centuries later, 19th century gynaecologists in England and the United States would perform clitoridectomies to treat various psychological symptoms as well as "masturbation and nymphomania."

"The surgeries we see in Victorian England and America were generally based on a now discarded theory called 'reflex neurosis,' held that many disorders like depression and neurasthenia originated in genital inflammation," Gollaher said.

"The same theory was behind the medicalization of male circumcision in the late 19th century," he added.

It is only relatively recently that FGM has been recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women.

Sweden was the first Western country to outlaw FGM, followed in 1985 by the UK.

In the United States it became illegal in 1997, and in the same year the WHO issued a joint statement with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) against the practice. FGM is a crime in many countries now.

An estimated 140 million girls and women now alive have undergone the mutilating procedure in 28 African countries, as well as in Yemen, Iraq, Malaysia, Indonesia and among certain ethnic groups in South America and some immigrant communities in the West.

About three million girls in Africa are said to be forced to undergo the procedure each year. The cutting is often done without anaesthetic, in conditions that risk potentially fatal infection — often using scissors, razor blades, broken glass and tin can lids.


http://news.discovery.com/human/female- ... 121210.htm

Note: For a long time doctors didn't know the purpose of the clitoris (kintir). Now it is known that it has the sole (known) function of providing pleasure.

Peace to babies and children, females and males, mothers and fathers, Peace to dhulkii hooyo. Aamiin.

Assalamu Calaykum.

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Re: Female Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Fri Nov 21, 2014 1:17 pm

Types of Female Genital Mutilation

According to the World Health Organization website:

Female Genital Mutilation

Fact sheet N°241
Updated February 2014


Key facts

  • Female genital mutilation (FGM) includes procedures that intentionally alter or cause injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.
    The procedure has no health benefits for girls and women.
    Procedures can cause severe bleeding and problems urinating, and later cysts, infections, infertility as well as complications in childbirth and increased risk of newborn deaths.
    More than 125 million girls and women alive today have been cut in the 29 countries in Africa and Middle East where FGM is concentrated.
    FGM is mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and age 15.
    FGM is a violation of the human rights of girls and women.
    Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.


The practice is mostly carried out by traditional circumcisers, who often play other central roles in communities, such as attending childbirths. However, more than 18% of all FGM is performed by health care providers, and the trend towards medicalization is increasing.

FGM is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. It reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes, and constitutes an extreme form of discrimination against women. It is nearly always carried out on minors and is a violation of the rights of children. The practice also violates a person's rights to health, security and physical integrity, the right to be free from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and the right to life when the procedure results in death.

Procedures

Female genital mutilation is classified into four major types.

1. Clitoridectomy: partial or total removal of the clitoris (a small, sensitive and erectile part of the female genitals) and, in very rare cases, only the prepuce (the fold of skin surrounding the clitoris).

2. Excision: partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora (the labia are "the lips" that surround the vagina).

3. Infibulation: narrowing of the vaginal opening through the creation of a covering seal. The seal is formed by cutting and repositioning the inner, or outer, labia, with or without removal of the clitoris.

4. Other: all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, e.g. pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterizing the genital area.


http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/


Somalia has one of the highest rates of FGM in the world. The number of Somali females in Somalia who have been mutilated has been estimated at 98% by UNICEF. It is mainly performed on girls between the ages of four and eleven.

Type 3- Infibulation (Pharaonic/Fircooni) is the type of mutilation most practiced with an estimated 80% of females infibulated (in some regions it is as high as 90%).

Type 1- Clitoridectomy is practiced mainly in the coastal cities of Xamar, Baraawe, Marka, and Kismaayo [US Department of State].

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Re: Female Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Sat Nov 22, 2014 7:06 pm

Why Is It Practiced?

There are several reasons provided to justify the practice of Female Genital Mutilation:

Control Over Women’s Sexuality: Virginity is a pre-requisite for marriage and is equated to female honour in a lot of communities. FGM, in particular infibulation, is defended in this context as it is assumed to reduce a woman’s sexual desire and lessen temptations to have extramarital sex thereby preserving a girl’s virginity.

Hygiene: There is a belief that female genitalia are unsightly and dirty. In some FGM-practicing societies, unmutilated women are regarded as unclean and are not allowed to handle food and water.

Gender Based Factors: FGM is often deemed necessary in order for a girl to be considered a complete woman, and the practice marks the divergence of the sexes in terms of their future roles in life and marriage. The removal of the clitoris and labia — viewed by some as the “male parts” of a woman’s body — is thought to enhance the girl’s femininity, often synonymous with docility and obedience. It is possible that the trauma of mutilation may have this effect on a girl’s personality. If mutilation is part of an initiation rite, then it is accompanied by explicit teaching about the woman’s role in her society.

Cultural Identity: In certain communities, where mutilation is carried out as part of the initiation into adulthood, FGM defines who belongs to the community. In such communities, a girl cannot be considered an adult in a FGM-practicing society unless she has undergone FGM.

Religion: FGM predates Islam and is not practiced by the majority of Muslims, but it has acquired a religious dimension. Where it is practiced by Muslims, religion is frequently cited as a reason. Many of those who oppose mutilation deny that there is any link between the practice and religion, but Islamic leaders are not unanimous on the subject. Although predominant among Muslims, FGM also occurs among Christians, animists and Jews.

http://www.endfgm.eu/en/female-genital- ... practised/

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Re: Female Genital Mutilation

Postby Bella18 » Sat Nov 22, 2014 8:07 pm

Great info Image

You have Somali parent's that are clueless of why FGM is practiced, to them its simply passed on from generation to generation without thinking about the immediate consequences. I'm glad the new constitution of Somalia prohibits FGM.

These ladies are doing good job bringing awareness to the community.
[youtube]QQDrLUPixl0#t=82[/youtube]

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Re: Female Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Sat Nov 22, 2014 8:12 pm

One definition of the word Pharaonic is: Cruelly oppressive; tyrannical.

Myths and Justifications for the Perpetuation of FGM
  • Wishes of ancestors
    Protects moral behaviour of women in society
    Assures faithfulness of women to their husbands
    Acceptance into adult society
    Control of women’s sexuality
    Infibulation ensures fatherhood
    Increases fertility
    Gender identity
    Clitoris is a dangerous organ and must be cut
    Clitoris will damage husband’s organ
    Calms girls
    Cleanliness
    Pleases men
    Prevents infants and maternal mortality
    Religious requirement
    Preserves virginity
    Controls waywardness of girls
    Prevents pre-marital sex and adultery
http://www.african-women.org/FGM/myths.php


To add to the excerpt above:
  • Some believe FGM will enhance sexual pleasure for the male.
    Maasai women believe if a woman is not mutilated evil spirits will dwell in her [Author Rosemarie Skaine- Female Genital Mutilation: Legal, Cultural, and Medical Issues.
    Publisher, Date: Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland, c2005].
    Some believe if the clitoris is not amputated it will grow and dangle between the legs.
    There are those who strongly believe their ancestors will curse them if they do not comply.
    Some believe that during childbirth if the baby's head comes into contact with the clitoris the baby will die.
    There are those who believe vaginal yeast infections are caused by external genitalia.
    Many believe no one will marry their daughters if they do not get mutilated.
    Many strongly believe FGM was Commanded by Allah.

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Re: Female Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Sat Nov 22, 2014 9:24 pm

Great info Image

You have Somali parent's that are clueless of why FGM is practiced, to them its simply passed on from generation to generation without thinking about the immediate consequences. I'm glad the new constitution of Somalia prohibits FGM.

These ladies are doing good job bringing awareness to the community.
[youtube]QQDrLUPixl0#t=82[/youtube]


Assalamu Calaykum,

Unfortunately many Somali people believe Female Genital Mutilation is commanded by Allah. In my opinion, the main reason why FGM continued through the centuries is because this torture is forced on unsuspecting children (some girls have been told they are going to their friend's home for instance and were mutilated). Most people would not willingly allow a knife or broken glass near their genitals and would do anything to escape (no matter how successful the brainwashing). This is known as the Fight or Flight response and is instinctual.

I believe lack of education (illiteracy and not understanding what intact organs should look like, along with ignorance of reproductive and sexual health), economic reasons, as well as strong pressure within society forces mothers to perpetuate this harmful traditional practice. I have seen videos and read accounts of mothers detailing the harms and pains and illnesses they suffered as a direct result of FGM. Some of these women mutilated their daughters knowing full well the horrendous immediate and long term consequences. Some of these mothers said Allah commanded it ("it is our religion"). Some said they couldn't turn their back on their dhaqan ("our ancestors underwent this practice").

The subject of Female Genital Mutilation is taboo to talk about in our culture, but I believe it is important to share this crucial information with our people.

The women in the video are doing a vital job.

Thank You for your input.

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Re: Female Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Sun Nov 23, 2014 11:59 am

Harmful Effects of Female Genital Mutilation

In some places Female Genital Mutilation is performed on newborn girls. Some females are mutilated before puberty. There are some adult women who get the procedure done before getting married. Others are mutilated after the birth of their first child.There are also some women who come from cultures that don't practice Female Genital Mutilation, but marry a man who comes from a culture that does practice FGM. These women submit to being mutilated.

The physical, psychological, emotional and sexual effects of FGM are many:

Immediate Consequences
  • Death Could Occur As a Result of Severe Bleeding Leading to Hemorrhagic Shock, Neurogenic Shock As a Result of Pain and Trauma, and Overwhelming Infection and Septicemia.
    Loss of Consciousness (Sometimes the Female Is Unconscious for Days Afterward).
    Severe Pain.
    Tetanus or Sepsis (Bacterial Infection).
    Urine Retention.
    Open Sores in the Genital Region and Injury to Nearby Genital Tissue.
Long-Term Consequences

In addition to the severe pain during and in the weeks following the cutting, women who have undergone FGM experience various long-term effects - physical, sexual and psychological.

Women may experience chronic pain, chronic pelvic infections, development of cysts, abscesses and genital ulcers, excessive scar tissue formation, infection of the reproductive system, decreased sexual enjoyment and psychological consequences, such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

Additional risks for complications from infibulations include urinary and menstrual problems, infertility, later surgery (defibulation and reinfibulation) and painful sexual intercourse. Sexual intercourse can only take place after opening the infibulation, through surgery or penetrative sexual intercourse. Consequently, sexual intercourse is frequently painful during the first weeks after sexual initiation and the male partner can also experience pain and complications.

When giving birth, the scar tissue might tear, or the opening needs to be cut to allow the baby to come out. After childbirth, women from some ethnic communities are often sown up again to make them “tight” for their husband (reinfibulation). Such cutting and restitching of a woman’s genitalia results in painful scar tissue.

A multi-country study by World Health Organization in six African countries, showed that women who had undergone FGM, had significantly increased risks for adverse events during childbirth, and that genital mutilation in mothers has negative effects on their newborn babies. According to the study, an additional one to two babies per 100 deliveries die as a result of FGM.

Almost all women who have undergone FGM experience pain and bleeding as a consequence of the procedure. The event itself is traumatic as girls are held down during the procedure. Risk and complications increase with the type of Female Genital Mutilation and are more severe and prevalent with infibulations.

“The pain inflicted by FGM does not stop with the initial procedure, but often continues as ongoing torture throughout a woman’s life”, says Manfred Nowak, UN Special Rapporteur on Torture.

Sources:

http://www.endfgm.eu/en/female-genital- ... ts-of-fgm/

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/

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Re: Female Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Fri Dec 05, 2014 11:48 pm

Genital Mutilation of both sexes, in my opinion, is the greatest calamity facing Somalia. This along with violence against children and women. To be sure there are many factors contributing to the many problems faced by the (Balkanized) nation like civil war, corruption, foreign interference, etc.. Genital Mutilation, however, is the underlying threat that affects every facet of society.

One can start to see how Genital Mutilation affects the entire society if one keeps an open mind. Many people cannot accept that Female Genital Mutilation or Male Genital Mutilation is harmful [Note: I do not equate Female Genital Mutilation with Male Genital Mutilation; I believe Cliterodectomy of baby girls to be the most painful and horrendous Genital Mutilation ritual]. It would be painful for them to accept this. It would mean that their dhaqan is wrong, that their parents might have inflicted torture on them when Allah didn't command it, it might mean that they allowed their daughters or sons to be tortured and mutilated, and that their children were damaged in so many ways and traumatized, or it might mean that they consented to the torture of their baby boys (most probably without Anesthesia).

For healing (for the individual and society at large) to begin, the horrors of Genital Mutilation must be understood, and it must be admitted that Genital Mutilation is an egregious attack on the sovereignty of the person and was a monumental region-wide, millennia long mistake that has no place in the Information Age. Such horrors continue even when those who experienced it know the harms associated with Genital Mutilation because people are unwilling or afraid (of ridicule, scandal, etc.) to talk.

Forced Genital Mutilation of both sexes is Torture and a Human Rights Violation. Children of both genders should be protected equally.

The parts of the reproductive organs are a birthright and a human being's free will must be respected. If one cannot own one's own body then what else is left worth owning?

Out of Love and Mercy and Protection shown to the most vulnerable of the citizens (children) does a nation prosper and see Beauty and Peace.

Can there be lasting Peace in Somalia when there is no Peace for Children and Women?

Sincerely,

LoveandLight.

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Re: Female Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Wed Dec 10, 2014 9:54 pm

The Provisional Constitution States: "Circumcision of Girls is a Cruel and Degrading Customary Practice, and is Tantamount to Torture. The Circumcision of Girls is Prohibited."

As Bella18 has mentioned Somalia's new Constitution bans Female Genital Mutilation/ Cutting (FGM/C). It is a step in the right direction. Enforcement of this law, however, is another issue. Some of the people it is supposed to protect might be in favor of Female Genital Mutilation. Many Somali parents living in the West where FGM is illegal, have circumvented the laws of those countries and had their daughters mutilated.

The older generations of Somali people (both female and male) might see this law as an affront, and the meddling of the government in their affairs. The traditionalists are set in their thinking and ways. Education is the key to empowering children and women. Local, National, and International NGOs provide much needed outreach to communities. It is imperative that people be educated about how their organs should look like intact and their functions. They should also be taught about the innumerable adverse affects of FGM whether immediate, long-term or post partum.

Female Genital Mutilation must be divorced from religion. Many people have the misconception that Female Genital Mutilation is an obligatory part of Islam. So, while the mother who has undergone this ritual might feel uneasy of putting her daughter(s) through the same agony, the erroneous idea that it is a religious requirement might force her hand in allowing something she knows to be harmful.

The younger generations of Somali people - especially those born or raised in the West - might be the ones most receptive to the idea of ending Female Genital Mutilation.

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Re: Female Genital Mutilation

Postby Bella18 » Fri Dec 12, 2014 12:55 am

I enjoy reading the information you post, keep it up Image

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Re: Female Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Fri Dec 12, 2014 12:04 pm

I enjoy reading the information you post, keep it up Image
Thank You Walaal. More information will be forthcoming inshallah.

Maalin Wanaagsan.

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Re: Female Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Wed Dec 17, 2014 12:44 pm

Somalia: Report on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Genital Cutting (FGC)

Released by the Office of the Senior Coordinator for International Women's Issues

US Department of State Archive


Practice:
The most common form of female genital mutilation (FGM) or female genital cutting (FGC) practiced in Somalia is Type III (commonly referred to as infibulation and in Somalia, the "Pharaonic circumcision"). Eighty percent of all genital procedures for women and girls consist of this form which is the most harmful form. The less radical or Type I (commonly referred to as clitoridectomy and in Somalia sometimes called "sunna") is practiced mainly in the coastal towns of Mogadishu, Brava, Merca and Kismayu. The procedures leave a lifetime of physical suffering for the women.

Incidence:
Virtually all Somali women are subjected to one of these procedures. A recent estimate by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) places the percentage of the women in Somalia who have undergone this procedure at 90 percent. Earlier estimates had placed the percentage at 96-98 percent. A 1983 national survey by the Ministry of Health found a prevalence of 96 percent. In October 1999, CARE International carried out a safe motherhood survey in Somaliland (northwest Somalia) to determine, among other things, the prevalence of FGM/FGC. It found the practice to be universal in this area of Somalia among the women sampled, with 91 percent undergoing Type III and nine percent Type I. These suggest that it is well established in all areas of the country and in most, if not all, the ethnic groups. It is commonly performed on girls as young as six or seven years of age.

Attitudes and Beliefs:
Many Somalis mistakenly view this procedure as a religious obligation. The concept of family honor is also involved. It is carried out to ensure virginity. Because virginity of daughters and family honor are related, it is believed that the family’s honor will also remain intact if the daughters are subjected to this procedure. Women who have not undergone this procedure may be thought of as having loose morals. A girl who has not undergone it will result in less bridewealth for her father and brothers.

There are several other rationales expressed for the practice in Somalia. Some men claim the artificial tightness heightens sexual enjoyment. Some say the smoothness of the scar is esthetically beautiful.

The CARE study showed a difference in attitude toward this practice between rural and urban women. A higher number of urban women than rural women felt there was nothing good about the practice. Forty percent of all women interviewed felt there was nothing bad about the practice. Eleven percent of those interviewed did not want their daughters to undergo this procedure.

Type I:
Type I is the excision (removal) of the clitoral hood with or without removal of all or part of the clitoris. This is the mildest form.

Type III:
Type III is the excision (removal) of part or all of the external genitalia (clitoris, labia minora and labia majora) and stitching or narrowing of the vaginal opening, leaving a very small opening, about the size of a matchstick, to allow for the flow of urine and menstrual blood. The girl or woman’s legs are generally bound together from the hip to the ankle so she remains immobile for approximately 40 days to allow for the formation of scar tissue.

In the cities, these procedures generally take place in a medical facility under anesthesia. If the operation is performed in a rural village, an old woman excisor performs the procedure without anesthesia. The excisors in Somalia, unlike in some other African countries, are not highly respected. They do not wield influence or have much status within the traditional power structure.

Outreach Activities:
Despite the fact that the practice is so entrenched in Somali culture and custom, women began working to eradicate the practice as early as 1977. In that year, the Somali Women’s Democratic Organization (SWDO) was formed. It became the implementing agency appointed by the now collapsed government of Siad Barre for the abolition of this practice.

To eradicate the dangers and damage caused by this procedure as performed by traditional excisors, the procedure was encouraged to be carried out in a hospital. The government supported an alternative method, which was to prick the clitoris to obtain a drop of blood. It was hoped that this method would eventually replace the more dangerous Type III. However, this strategy did not work as had been hoped and the practice was eventually banned in all government hospitals.

In 1988, the government launched a campaign to eradicate the practice completely on health and religious grounds. The campaign maintained the operation was dangerous to women's health and not called for in the Quran. It was even pointed out that it would not guarantee virginity.

A center was set up in the Somalia Academy of Arts and Sciences in the early 1980s to conduct studies on this practice. A Swedish Agency, SAREC, funded this. The center carried out research into the physical, psychological and sociological aspects of the practice.

The Institute of Women’s Education (IWE) was set up in 1984 by the Department of Non-Formal Education of the Ministry of Education. The Institute focused on improving women’s living conditions by improving their income, health and nutrition. It focused on improving female literacy and organizing women’s groups among female community leaders. The latter were to encourage activities for rural development that included participation of women.

The IWE commenced activities in the mid-1980s against the practice of FGM/FGC. This was included entirely in a general health program called the Family Planning Project. These activities were not very successful, however, because they did not receive money from the government and the government had not passed any legislation outlawing this practice.

In 1987, SWDO and the Italian Association for Women and Development (AIDOS) founded an eradication project in Somalia. AIDOS provided technical and methodological support and SWDO was responsible for the content and direction of the project. SWDO approached the practice as a health issue. It feared an approach based on female rights (such as that of sexual freedom) would surely fail.

SWDO organized a campaign that produced information packets including audio-visuals for women, young people, religious leaders and medical personnel in the local language. It also provided workshops for trainers and held seminars for women and even organized a poetry contest on why the practice was dangerous to women and girls. An international conference was held in Mogadishu in 1989 on "Female Circumcision: Strategies to Bring about Change." The Somali Revolutionary Party, which was in power at that time, gave moral support to the project.

However, once Siad Barre’s Somali Revolutionary Party was overthrown and the country thrown into turmoil in 1991, the technical basis for the campaign was destroyed.

Some international agencies have recently begun anti-FGM/FGC educational campaigns. These campaigns have attempted to enlist women and religious leaders in the fight against the practice. Religious leaders have, in some instances, been persuaded to tell their adherents this practice is a cultural, not a religious practice.

Since 1996, UNICEF in Somalia has supported a series of awareness raising seminars attended by women's grassroots organizations, religious leaders, politicians, health professionals and other representatives of the population. In 1997, the Government of Somaliland, in collaboration with UNICEF and other agencies, organized a National Seminar on FGM/FGC. The outcome was to establish an intersectoral committee at a national level and a regional task force to develop policies on eradication of this practice.

UNICEF sponsored workshops in Mogadishu, Galgaddud and Mudug regions in 1999-2000. At a workshop held in Hargeisa on April 18-19, 2000, the participants developed a Somaliland Declaration calling on the Government and the people of Somaliland to eradicate this practice in the country. In collaboration with Al Azhar University, Cairo, UNICEF organized an FGM/FGC study tour for seven sheiks and two national officers from September 20-October, 2000. UNICEF was then to begin a "training the trainers: anti-FGM/FGC program."

In 2000, the U.S. Embassy provided funds through its Democracy and Human Rights Fund (DHRF) to the Voice of Midwives Association for a campaign to raise public awareness of the harmful effects of this practice. A grant of US$10,173 was provided for meetings and discussions throughout Somaliland, incorporating the use of drama and other traditional techniques. In 1998, the Embassy provided US$20,000 from DHRF to UNICEF to assist its project of building consensus against FGM/FGC in four communities in Somaliland.

Legal Status:
Although the former government’s policy on this practice was for its complete eradication, this policy was never translated into law. There is no national law specifically prohibiting FGM in Somalia. There are provisions of the Penal Code of the former government covering "hurt", "grievous hurt" and "very grievous hurt" however, which might apply.*

In November 1999, the Parliament of the Puntland administration unanimously approved legislation making the practice illegal. There is no evidence, however, that this law is being enforced. **

Protection:
Prior to the country’s relatively recent upheaval, there appeared to be a good beginning at creating some type of relief from this practice with a number of outreach organizations in existence. The work of these organizations, however, was disrupted during the fighting.

There is also no national judicial system or central authority. Some regions have established local courts rendering judgments based on traditional and customary law, Islamic Shari’a law, the Penal Code of the defunct Siad Barre government or some combination of the three. It is unlikely such a system would uphold any anti-FGM/FGC relief given the strong foundation it enjoys in traditional society.

Prepared by the Office of the Senior Coordinator for International Women's Issues, Office of the Under Secretary for Global Affairs, U.S. Department of State, June 2001


Released on June 1, 2001

US Department of State Archive


http://2001-2009.state.gov/g/wi/rls/rep/crfgm/10109.htm

* Note the Provisional Somali Constitution Adopted August 1, 2012 makes Female Genital Mutilation illegal.


Title Two: Rights, Basic Personal Liberties and Limitations

Article 15. Liberty and Security of the Person


(1) Every person has the right to personal liberty and security.

(2) Every person has the right to personal security , and this includes: the prohibition of illegal detention,
all forms of violence, including any form of violence against women, torture, or inhumane
treatment.

(3) Every person has the right to physical integrity, which cannot be violated. No one may be
subjected to medical or scientific experiments without their consent or, if a person lacks the legal
capacity to consent, the consent of a near relative and the support of expert medical opinion.

(4) Female circumcision is a cruel and degrading customary practice, and is tantamount to torture. The
circumcision of girls is prohibited.


(5) Abortion is contrary to Shari’ah and is prohibited except in cases of necessity, especially to save the
life of the mother.


** Recent Developments in Puntland:

Regional Authority in Somalia Introduces an Official Policy to end FGM/C

14 March 2014 Garowe - UNICEF has welcomed the decision by the President of Puntland in north east Somalia to approve an official Government policy to support the outlawing of all forms of female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C).

Puntland’s President, Abdiweli Mohamed Gas, signed the policy on International Women’s Day – 8 March. The policy was approved by the Cabinet in December 2013.

UNICEF through the Joint UNICEF/UNFPA Program and the Joint Health and Nutrition Program supported Puntland’s Ministry of Women, Family and Social Affairs to develop the anti-FGM/C policy along with other Ministries, Parliamentarians, civil society and religious leaders.

The policy states that it aims for: “Total abandonment of FGM/C practices in the Puntland through effective Government FGM/C abandonment strategies and approaches for sustainable behaviour change at the family and at the society levels.”

It will include working with religious leaders and health professionals, sensitizing the community, using the media, providing access to quality reproductive health services and generation of reliable FGM/C data.

A Committee will oversee the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and strategies for the abandonment of FGM/C.

The Puntland Government passed a law in 2011 banning the most extreme forms of FGM/C. In 2013 Islamic scholars in Puntland issued a religious decree ‘fatwa’ banning FGM saying it had no basis in Islam. Activists now hope that legislation will be passed banning all forms of FGM/C.

Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) is widespread in Somalia – 98% of women have undergone the procedure which is a social and cultural convention. Girls often suffer major health problems as a result of FGM/C including severe bleeding, bacterial infection, and later in life recurrent infections, infertility, complications in childbirth and increased risk of newborn deaths. Girls are often forced to leave school after undergoing FGM/C due to health reasons or because they are seen as being ready for marriage.

Puntland is the first region in Somalia to adopt an anti FGM/C policy. It is also banned under the current draft Constitution of the Federal Government of Somalia. A draft decree outlawing FGM/C in Somaliland is awaiting consensus from religious leaders and will then be presented to the cabinet for approval.

“I hope the day will come soon when all girls and young women in Puntland are spared this terrible ordeal and the authorities in the other areas will quickly follow the example of Puntland,” said UNICEF Somalia Deputy Representative, Foroogh Foyouzat.

http://www.unicef.org/somalia/reallives_14437.html

LoveandLight
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Re: Female Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Mon Dec 22, 2014 11:10 pm

The Somali people have invited disaster to their children, women and nation.

Not even Infibulation can keep a girl from having premarital sex. Genital Mutilation will damage the sexual organs, but not the sexual desire. What a cruel practice, where mothers think they have no choice, but to allow the torture of their daughters. I have seen mothers who have recounted the immediate suffering they have endured, as well as lifelong health problems as a result of having their genitals mutilated. These same mothers allowed their daughters to go through the same ordeal because they didn't want to be the only ones to go against tradition.

How many people have died as a result of Genital Mutilation? The greatest threat to most Somali girls is their parents. Torture is Normal and To Be Expected among our people, and some mothers who have experienced Female Genital Mutilation are the most ardent supporters of FGM! Somali women have been led to believe that suffering is their lot, and that it is normal for all women to suffer. Many females suffer during urination, menstruation, sexual intercourse (an act that was supposed to be pleasurable is made painful and complicated!) and childbirth (childbirth was risky for mother and baby to begin with, and now because of people altering God's creation, it becomes even more risky) among the many other pains that resulted after the Mutilation; not to mention the mental anguish. Some women have been left infertile by the horror that was visited on them. When did it become normal/ routine to cause great fear, and inflict excruciating pain on children? How could this tragedy be allowed to continue?

The Status Quo in Somalia was brought about, in large part, by the Systematic Torture of Nearly Every Single Person in the fragmented country.

It shouldn't be Ceeb to discuss the numerous adverse effects of Genital Mutilation with fellow Somali People. What should be Ceeb is the obsession an entire culture has with mutilating children's private parts.

What would happen if Genital Mutilation wasn't forced on children? I think people would be much happier, healthier, and much kinder. And most people might choose to keep their sexual organs intact. No person wants to feel excruciating pain and risk death!


"If We Are to Have Real Peace, We Must Begin With the Children." - Mahatma Gandhi

LoveandLight
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Re: Female Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Thu Jan 01, 2015 5:42 pm

Cause and Effect


One reason the Patriarchy uses to justify the ritual of Female Genital Mutilation, is the artificial tightness of the vagina that results after Infibulation/Pharaonic/Fircooni mutilation. A small opening is kept to allow passage of urine and menstrual blood. Some Males believe this will heighten the sexual enjoyment for Them. Wait a minute...

During Birth A Baby Is Supposed To Come Out Of There. Are These People Brain Damaged?


The Highest Maternal And Infant Mortality Rates Are In FGM Practicing Regions.

[Hosken, F. (1993). The Hosken Report: Genital and Sexual Mutilation of Females, fourth edition. Lexington, MA: Women's International Network; p. 37].




Say, why don't they leave the girls alone? And while they're at it, why don't they leave the boys alone too? If the males were left with the most pleasurable part of their penis intact, maybe they would not have devised elaborate, and Dangerous ways to increase their own sexual gratification.


On The Importance Of Reading


Literacy Is A Bridge From Misery To Hope Kofi Annan

Once you learn to read, you will be forever free. — Frederick Douglass

Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body. — Richard Steele

Reading is important, because if you can read, you can learn anything about everything and everything about anything. — Tomie dePaola

It is books that are the key to the wide world; if you can’t do anything else, read all that you can. — Jane Hamilton

He that loves reading has everything within his reach. — William Godwin

I have always imagined that paradise will be a kind of library. — Jorge Luis Borges



Peace, Love and Happiness.


LoveandLight

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Re: Female Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Fri Jan 02, 2015 12:48 pm

Which is Worse: Animosity, Ignorance, or Apathy?


by Royale Scuderi on November 3, 2012 in Responsible Living

I’m not sure which is [Sic] state is worse: animosity, ignorance, or apathy. Instead of the good, the bad and the ugly, they’re like the bad, the awful, and the downright horrendous. And nothing demonstrates their abundant presence as an impending election does.

What is it that makes people think and act as they do?

I don’t have the answer to that; people continue to baffle me with their behavior and words.

What I do know, is that I am appalled at the persistent and severe animosity that people can display towards one another. Can we not see that our animosity solves nothing?

After 200+ years, have we not learned this simple lesson? What will it take for us, the citizens, the electorate, and the politicians to understand that effective and lasting solutions can only be reached through collaboration? Healthy debate is necessary and useful, nasty finger pointing and hostility is not.

But, as bad as animosity is, I believe ignorance is worse…

At least with animosity, people truly have strong feelings, inelastic convictions maybe, but conviction, words and action, nonetheless. With ignorance, there is a lack of knowledge, a lack of understanding, sometimes even an unwillingness to learn. At its worse ignorance is an unwillingness to examine our beliefs, and our behaviors, a refusal to ask questions and to seek answers. Ignorance is an awful state to exist in and it poses a deep and significant impediment to progress and resolution.

But, perhaps, at least in my mind, apathy is the worst of all…

With apathy, there is nothing. There is no anger and no conviction. There is no unwillingness to question and learn. There is simply detachment, no caring, no concern, no feeling, no thought given, no investment in the problems or solutions. I find that truly saddest of all, appalling really. That we can live in this world and not be concerned about the issues and the people around us is a horrendous affront to our humanity.

It’s often said that apathy is worse than evil, because at least evil thinks it’s right, it’s justified in its behavior. Ignorance doesn’t understand, doesn’t seek knowledge, but often truly doesn’t know any better.

"Animosity can be tamed, with patience and compassion it can be re-directed. Ignorance can be rectified; it can be enlightened. Apathy is indifferent and disconnected. It does not care and is beyond reach."

When will we realize that humanity and progress require knowledge, understanding, conviction, compassion, commitment, and most of all empathy and involvement for and in the world around us?

If you feel as I do, please share this post with everyone you know. Awareness is always the first step toward progress.


http://productivelifeconcepts.com/which ... or-apathy/


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