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Infant Genital Mutilation

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Re: Infant Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Mon Feb 01, 2016 12:25 pm

Save Your Babies!!!

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Re: Infant Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Mon Feb 01, 2016 12:28 pm

Hold Your Children Tight.

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Re: Infant Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Mon Feb 01, 2016 12:33 pm

You Have Been WARNED!!!

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Re: Infant Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Mon Feb 01, 2016 2:17 pm

Pro-Circumcision Culturally Biased, Not Scientific: Experts




Does American Academy have political agenda advocating infant circumcision?




Darcia Narvaez Ph.D.

Moral Landscapes


Posted Jul 07, 2013






https://cdn.psychologytoday.com/blog/mo ... ic-experts








Shockingly, most male infants in the USA still undergo circumcision. Last year the American Academy of Pediatrics put out a report that infant circumcision is beneficial to infant boys for several reasons, including preventing penile cancer. But infants do not get penile cancer. The arguments were flawed and biased according to a group of doctors representing medical organizations outside the USA.

Here are some quotes from the commentary:

“Seen from the outside, cultural bias reflecting the normality of nontherapeutic male circumcision in the United States seems obvious, and the report’s conclusions are different from those reached by physicians in other parts of the Western world, including Europe, Canada, and Australia”

There may also be a monetary bias: “The AAP does not recommend routine circumcision of all infant boys as a public health measure but asserts that the benefits of the procedure are sufficient to warrant third-party payment.”

From the conclusion of the commentary:

“The AAP report lacks a serious discussion of the central ethical dilemma with, on one side, parents’ right to act in the best interest of the child on the basis of cultural, religious, and health-related beliefs and wishes and, on the other side, infant boys’ basic right to physical integrity in the absence of compelling reasons for surgery. Physical integrity is one of the most fundamental and inalienable rights a child has. Physicians and their professional organizations have a professional duty to protect this right, irrespective of the gender of the child.”

You can see the full commentary, Cultural Bias in the AAP's 2012 Technical Report and Policy Statement on Male Circumcision, here
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/c ... 6.full.pdf (link is external).



When to circumcise your infant (warning: tongue in cheek, graphic and harsh):


  • When you want to prevent urinary tract infections—of course you might want to also cut off your child’s fingers to prevent him from playing videogames, or blind him to prevent television watching. You see, there are much less severe ways to prevent urinary tract infections—like breasfeeding (see here http://www.hkjpaed.org/details.asp?id=673&show=1234 (link is external)), or using antibiotics or probiotics, But why not go extreme?

    When you don’t want to learn about how best to clean or NOT clean the genital area. The body naturally cleanses itself, but if parents use soap or other agents on genital areas, it can undermine the balance of healthy body bacteria, leading to infection (see here https://cdn.psychologytoday.com/node/76 ... 3Fpage%3D1). Who wants to know all this?

    When you think your infant will be sexually active. Although there is mostly contrary evidence, there is some evidence (from poorly designed/executed studies) that circumcision in men leads to less sexually-transmitted diseases and HIV. If you don’t think your infant will be sexually active, then you might as well wait and let the boy make his own decision. He will have to weigh whether or not he wants to adversely affect his sexual life, which circumcision is known to do (Fink et al, 2002; Frisch et al., 2011; Kim & Pang, 2007).

    When you want to prevent the remotest chance of penile cancer as an adult—chances of which are similar to dying of a snake bite. Of course, it might be better to cut off his penis entirely because you can still get penile cancer if you have one. While you are at it, you might as well cut off your daughter’s breast buds to prevent breast cancer. Isn’t prevention a good thing?

    When you want to greatly increase the chances of your child’s psychological, social and sexual turmoil and unhappiness (see here
    https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/mo ... -realities). That’s what parenting is about, right?



More posts on infant circumcision:



Part 1: Myths about Circumcision You Likely Believe

Part 2: More Circumcision Myths You May Believe: Hygiene and STDs

Part 3: Circumcision: Social, Sexual, Psychological Realities

Part 4: Circumcision Ethics and Economics

Part 5: What Is the Greatest Danger for an Uncircumcised Boy?

Part 6: Why Continue to Harm Boys from Ignorance of Male Anatomy?

Part 7: Pro-Circumcision for Infants Culturally Biased, Not Scientific Say Authorities



References



Fink KS, Carson CC, DeVellis RF. Adult circumcision outcomes study: effect on erectile function, penile sensitivity, sexual activity and satisfaction. J Urol. 2002;167(5):2113–2116

Frisch M, Lindholm M, Grønbæk M. Male circumcision and sexual function in men and women: a survey-based, cross-sectional study in Denmark. Int J Epidemiol.2011;40(5):1367–1381

Kim D, Pang MG. The effect of male circumcision on sexuality. BJU Int. 2007;99(3): 619–622

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Re: Infant Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Tue Feb 02, 2016 3:04 pm

I need to redouble my efforts.

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Re: Infant Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Tue Mar 15, 2016 4:03 pm

Circumcision’s Psychological Damage




CDC wants all males to be cut--but it's harmful psychologically




Darcia Narvaez Ph.D.

Moral Landscapes


Posted Jan 11, 2015





https://cdn.psychologytoday.com/blog/mo ... cal-damage




________________________________________________________________________________________________________



*First author is Patrick O’Connor, Psy.D.


As psychologists, we are deeply concerned by the recently announced CDC guidelines promoting circumcision for all males, and in particular children. The CDC guidelines are based on a sharply criticized 2012 policy statement by the American Academy of Pediatrics. The 2012 statement was condemned by a large group of physicians, medical organizations, and ethicists from European, Scandinavian, and Commonwealth countries as “culturally biased” and “different from [the conclusions] reached by physicians in other parts of the Western world, including Europe, Canada and Australia” (Frisch et al., 2013).

The new CDC guidelines highlight methodologically flawed studies from Africa that have no relevance to the United States. They chose to ignore studies that were conducted in the United States and show no link between circumcision and the risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV (Thomas et al., 2004).

Worse, the CDC has completely ignored the psychological effects of genital cutting on male children.

This article outlines the psychological research that demonstrates the relationship between circumcision and psychological harm. The authors, along with other psychologists, have appealed to the CDC and Congress to reevaluate this policy in light of the psychological harm it will cause infants, children, and teens.



PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON INFANTS



1. Circumcision Causes Immediate Harm


Circumcision is often performed on infants without anesthetic or with a local anesthetic that is ineffective at substantially reducing pain (Lander et al., 1997). In a study by Lander and colleagues (1997), a control group of infants who received no anesthesia was used as a baseline to measure the effectiveness of different types of anesthesia during circumcision. The control group babies were in so much pain—some began choking and one even had a seizure—they decided it was unethical to continue. It is important to also consider the effects of post-operative pain in circumcised infants (regardless of whether anesthesia is used), which is described as “severe” and “persistent” (Howard et al., 1994). In addition to pain, there are other negative physical outcomes including possible infection and death (Van Howe, 1997, 2004).



2. Pain from Circumcision in Infancy Alters the Brain


Research has demonstrated the hormone cortisol, which is associated with stress and pain, spikes during circumcision (Talbert et al., 1976; Gunnar et al., 1981). Although some believe that babies “won’t remember” the pain, we now know that the body “remembers” as evidenced by studies which demonstrate that circumcised infants are more sensitive to pain later in life (Taddio et al., 1997). Research carried out using neonatal animals as a proxy to study the effects of pain on infants’ psychological development have found distinct behavioral patterns characterized by increased anxiety, altered pain sensitivity, hyperactivity, and attention problems (Anand & Scalzo, 2000). In another similar study, it was found that painful procedures in the neonatal period were associated with site-specific changes in the brain that have been found to be associated with mood disorders (Victoria et al., 2013).



3. Infant Circumcision has Psychological Consequences for Men


Over the last decade there has been a movement of men who were circumcised as infants and have articulated their anger and sadness over having their genitals modified without their consent. Goldman (1999) notes that shame and denial is one major factor that limits the number of men who publicly express this belief. Studies of men who were circumcised in infancy have found that some men experienced symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder, depression, anger, and intimacy problems that were directly associated with feelings about their circumcision (Boyle, 2002; Goldman, 1999; Hammond, 1999).



PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS



1. Medical Procedures in Childhood are Often Experienced as Traumatic


The CDC fails to consider that many medical procedures, even those that are described as routine, are often experienced as traumatic by children and adolescents (Levine & Kline, 2007). Circumcision, for example, clearly meets the clinical definition of trauma because it involves a violation of physical integrity. In fact, research has demonstrated that medical traumas in childhood and adolescence share many of the same psychological elements of childhood abuse, such as physical pain, fear, loss of control, and the perception that the event is a form of punishment (Nir, 1985; Shalev, 1993, Shopper, 1995).



2. Procedures Involving Children’s Genitals Produce Negative Psychological Effects


The psychological consequences of medical procedures are even greater when they involve a child’s genitals. Studies have examined the psychological effects of medical photography of the genitals (Money, 1987), repeated genital examinations (Money, 1987), colposcopy (Shopper, 1995), cystscopy and catheterization (Shopper, 1995), voiding cystourethrogram (Goodman et al., 1990), and hypospadias repair (INSA, 1994). The studies found that these procedures often produce symptoms which are very similar to those of childhood sexual abuse, including dissociation and the development of a negative body image. The effects often persist into adulthood as evidenced by a study that examined the effects of childhood penile surgery for hypospadias. Men who had this surgery in childhood experienced more depressive symptoms, anxiety, and interpersonal difficulties than men who did not have the surgery (Berg & Berg, 1983).



3. Circumcision Causes Significant Psychological Harm in Children and Adolescents


Circumcision in childhood and adolescence has significant negative psychological consequences. Following a traumatic event, many children experience anxiety, depression, and anger; and many others try to avoid and suppress these painful feelings (Gil, 2006). In addition, children often experience a debilitating loss of control that negatively affects their ability to regulate emotions and make sense of the traumatic experience (Van der Kolk, 2005). In a study of adults circumcised in childhood, Hammond (1999) found that many men conceptualized their circumcision experience as an act of violence, mutilation, or sexual assault. Kennedy (1986) detailed the psychological effects of circumcision in a case study describing the psychotherapy of a boy who was circumcised at three years of age. The sense of inadequacy, feelings of victimization, and violent sexual fantasies experienced during this boy’s adolescence were found to be both consciously and unconsciously linked to his experience with losing part of his penis (Kennedy, 1986). In a study examining the psychological effects of circumcision on boys between four and seven years of age, Cansever (1965) used psychological testing to measure boys’ level of distress. The results of the study indicated that circumcision was perceived as an aggressive attack on the body that left children feeling damaged and mutilated (Cansever, 1968). Cansever (1968) also noted that these boys experienced changes in body image (with many feeling smaller and incomplete), feelings of inadequacy and helplessness, as well as a tendency to withdraw psychologically.



4. The Majority of Boys Circumcised as Children and Adolescents Meet Diagnostic Criteria for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)


The most comprehensive study available that assesses the psychological impact of circumcision on children after infancy was conducted by Ramos and Boyle (2000) and involved 1072 pre-adolescent and adolescent boys who were circumcised in a hospital setting. Using an adapted version of a clinically established PTSD interview rating scale, the study’s authors determined that 51 percent of these boys met the full diagnostic criteria for PTSD and noted that other variables such as age at circumcision (pre-adolescence versus adolescence) and time elapsed since the procedure (months versus years) were not predictive of a PTSD diagnosis (Ramos & Boyle, 2000). As a point of comparison, the rate of PTSD among veterans of the Iraq war is approximately 20 percent (NIH, 2009).



5. By Encouraging Circumcision, Medical Professionals are Shaming Boys’ Bodies


If the CDC guidance is followed, medical providers will be communicating a psychologically damaging message to boys with intact genitals—that their penises are somehow “bad” or inferior. The negative effects of such communications have been studied with regard to intersex children and have been found to be frightening, shaming, and embarrassing to the child (Rusch et al., 2000). This is a particularly cruel message to send to adolescents, many of whom are already experiencing concerns regarding body image.



CONCLUSION


The circumcision of children has myriad negative psychological consequences that the CDC has failed to consider. Removing healthy tissue in the absence of any medical need harms the patient and is a breach of medical providers’ ethical duty to the child. We believe that all people have a right to bodily autonomy and self-determination and deeply respect this fundamental tenet of international human rights law (UNESCO 2005). As children cannot advocate for themselves, they need adults to understand the complexities of their emotional experiences and provide them special protection. We oppose the CDC’s circumcision recommendation and encourage all parents to do the same in order to protect their children from physical and psychological harm.



PARENTS: For clear, easy and plain-language help making the circumcision decision, try the CIRCUMCISION DECISION MAKER at http://circumcisiondecisionmaker.com/

TAKE ACTION for boy health, wellbeing and autonomy by submitting a comment at the CDC website. The comment period for their new guidelines closes on January 16, 2015.




ADDENDA:



Circumcision in childhood is linked to increased risk of autism.


http://www.telegraph.co.uk/men/active/m ... laims.html



Practical Tips for Men Distressed by Their Circumcision


https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/mo ... rcumcision





POSTS IN BLOG SERIES ON CIRCUMCISION



Myths about Infant Circumcision you Likely believe

More Circumcision Myths You May Believe: Hygiene and STDs

Circumcision: Social, Sexual, Psychological Realities

Circumcision Ethics and Economics

What Is the Greatest Danger for an Uncircumcised Boy?

Why Continue to Harm Boys from Ignorance of Male Anatomy?

Pro-Circumcision Culturally Biased, Not Scientific: Experts

Protect (All) Your Boys from Early Trauma





Read about how early trauma influences brain development and morality in Neurobiology and the Development of Human Morality:Evolution, Culture and Wisdom (Norton book; discount code: NARVAEZ).







References





Anand, K.J., & Scalzo, F.M. (2000). Can adverse neonatal experiences alter brain development and subsequent behavior? Biol Neonate, 77, 69-82.

Berg, R., & Berg, G. (1983). Castration complex: Evidence from men operated for hypospadias. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 68, 143-153.

Boyle, G.J., Goldman, R., Svoboda, JS., & Fernandez, E. (2002). Male circumcision: Pain, trauma, and psychosexual sequelae. Journal of Health Psychology, 7, 329-343.

Boyle, G.J., & Ramos, S. (2000). Ritual and medical circumcision among filipino boys: Evidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Humanities & Social Science Papers, 114.

Cansever, G. (1965). Psychological effects of circumcision. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 38, 321-331.

Frisch, M., Aigrain, Y., Barauskas, V., Bjarnason, R., Boddy, S.A., Czauderna, P., de Gier, R.P., de Jong, T.P., Fasching, G., Fetter, W., Gahr, M., Graugaard, C., Greisen, G., Gunnarsdottir, A., Hartmann, W., Havranek, P., Hitchcock, R., Huddart. S., Janson, S., Jaszczak, P., Kupferschmid, C., Lahdes-Vasama, T., Lindahl, H., MacDonald, N., Markestad, T., Märtson, M., Nordhov, S.M., Pälve, H., Petersons, A., Quinn, F., Qvist, N., Rosmundsson, T., Saxen, H., Söder, O., Stehr, M., von Loewenich, V.C., Wallander, J., Wijnen, R. (2013). Cultural bias in the AAP's 2012 Technical Report and Policy Statement on male circumcision. Pediatrics, 131, 796-800.

Gil, E. (2006). Helping abused and traumatized children. New York: Guilford Press.

Goldman, R. (1999). The psychological impact of circumcision. BJU International, 83, Suppl. 1, 93-102.

Goodman, G.S., Rudy, L., Bottoms, B.L., & Aman, C. (1990). Children’s concerns and memory: issues of ecological validity in the study of children’s eyewitness testimony. In R. Fivush J.A. Hudson (Eds.), Knowing and Remembering in Young Children (pp. 249-294). NY: Cambridge University Press.

Gunnar, M.R., Fisch, R.O., Korsvik, S. & Donhowe, J. (1981). The effects of circumcision on serum cortisol and behavior. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 6, 269-275.

Hammond, T. (1999). A preliminary poll of men circumcised in infancy or childhood. BJU International, 83, Suppl. 1, 85-92.

Howard, C.R., Howard, F.M., & Weitzman, M.L. (1994). Acetaminophen analgesia in neonatal circumcision: The effect on pain. Pediatrics, 93, 641-646.

Intersex Society of North America (ISNA). (1994). Hypospadias: A parent’s guide.

Kennedy, H. (1986). Trauma in childhood: Signs and sequelae as seen in the analysis of an adolescent. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 41, 209-219.

Lander, J., Brady-Freyer, B., Metcalfe, J.B., Nazerali, S., & Muttit, S. (1997). Comparison of ring block, dorsal penile nerve block, and topical anesthesia for neonatal circumcision. JAMA, 278, 2157-2162.

Levine, P.A., & Kline, M. (2007). Trauma through a child’s eyes. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

Money, J., & Lamacz, M. (1987). Genital examination and exposure experienced as nosocomial sexual abuse in childhood. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 175, 713-721.

National Institutes of Health. (2009). PTSD: A growing epidemic.. NIH Medline, 4, 1. Retrieved from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/maga ... 10-14.html

Nir, Y. (1985). Post-traumatic stress disorder in children with cancer. In S. Eth R. S. Pynoos (Eds.), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children (p. 121-132). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.

Rusch, M.D., Grunert, B.K., Sanger, J.R., Dzwierzynski, W.W., & Matloub, H.S. (2000). Psychological adjustment in children after traumatic disfiguring injuries: A 12-month follow-up. Plastic Reconstructive Surgery, 106, 1451-60.

Shalev, A.Y., Schreiber, S., & Galai, T. (1993). Post-traumatic stress disorder following medical events. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 32, 247-253.

Shopper, M. (1995). Medical Procedures as a source of trauma. Bulletin of the Meninger Clinic, 59, 191-204.

Taddio A., Katz, J., Ilersich, A.L., Koren, G. (1997). Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain response during subsequent routine vaccination. Lancet, 349, 599-603.

Talbert, C. M., Kraybill, E. N., & Potter H.D. (1976). Adrenal cortical response to circumcision in the neonate. Obstetrics and. Gynecology, 48, 208-210.

Thomas, A.G., Bakhireva, L.N., Brodine, S., Shaffer, R. (2004). Prevalence of male circumcision and its association with HIV and sexually transmitted infections in a U.S. navy population. Poster Exhibition: The XV International AIDS Conference.

Intergovernmental Bioethics Committee. Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. Adopted by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization on 19 October 2005.

Van der Kolk, B.A. (2005). Developmental trauma disorder: Towards a rational diagnosis for children with complex trauma histories. Psychiatric Annals, 35, 401-408.

Van Howe, R..S. (1997). Variability in penile appearance and penile findings: A prospective study. BJU, 80, 776-782.

Van Howe, R.S. (2004). A cost-utility analysis of neonatal circumcision. Medical Decision Making, 24, 584 - 601.

Victoria, N.C., Kiyoshi, I., Young, L.J., & Murphy, A.Z. (2013). Long-term dysregulation of brain corticotrophin and glucocorticoid receptors and stress reactivity by single early-life pain experience in male and female rats. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38, 3015-3028.

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Re: Infant Genital Mutilation

Postby Copy.&.Paste » Tue Jul 12, 2016 10:27 am

i think nurses and doctors should comment in this thread

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Re: Infant Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Thu Jul 14, 2016 10:28 am

i think nurses and doctors should comment in this thread


Salaam, SimplySerene.



I wonder how female doctors could TORTURE and MUTILATE baby boys?! Some male doctors who make money off this INHUMANITY have been TORTURED and MUTILATED themselves, thus suffering brain damage. I wonder if they make the connection that when they were babies they screamed like the baby boys that they TORTURE and MUTILATE?

There are nurses who have spoken publicly about the horrific things which they have seen, heard, and perhaps participated in behind closed doors. Some nurses have refused to take part in this ghastly crime.

Most people are unaware that most baby boys who are circumcised are MUTILATED without anesthesia, and that the babies experience Terror and Near-Death Excruciating Pain!!!

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Re: Infant Genital Mutilation

Postby MayDay777 » Thu Jul 14, 2016 12:07 pm

Kii waalanaa baa soo noqdey

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Re: Infant Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Mon Aug 01, 2016 7:55 pm

I want to thank SimplySerene for speaking to the SomaliNet Administrators about my return to the forums (I was banned for almost three and a half months). I will continue my vital advocacy work, God Willing.



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Re: Infant Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Thu Aug 11, 2016 10:40 am

Dear love&light,

Do you feel this campaign of yours is reaping any success or falling on deaf ears?

Your point is made, repetitively....so I would hope you assess it's affect.

Is it well received, mildly debated, or heck...even strongly opposed? I see none of this in your thread yet u continue to post more material.

So why don't you share some personal experience. Since you promote this, I would imagine you'll probably apply to your children. Do you have kids? Boys? are they running around free willy? Etc. perhaps you can personalize it and maybe your point might ignite some discourse. It's getting too repetitive posting the same marital over and over again.

I'll throw my opinion into this and say that thank you for all your informative details with baby boy circumcision...but still I will choose this for my son when he is born inshallah.

Peace!


Salaam, zulaika.



I don't know if you remember, I replied to you once before letting you know that I was working on a long response:


Salaam, zulaika.



Please reconsider. A long response, which I have been working on for quite some time, is to follow, insha Allah. ...


That was almost a year ago. I was doing research, writing and editing. I was also engaged in the protection of children elsewhere. I originally intended to answer your question with a long response. I starting working on that response the day I read your post. I will instead answer your questions and leave the long post I was working on for another time. I know it has been more than a year since you posted this. I apologize. I got distracted by my other threads dealing with the protection of children from TORTURE and Genital MUTILATION, and life in general. I was also banned for almost three and a half months (no warning or reason was provided to me).

At the time that you asked me:


Do you feel this campaign of yours is reaping any success or falling on deaf ears?


There were some people who questioned this barbaric ritual. I was deeply pleased to read one member say that they would NOT circumcise their children. Praise be to Allah!

If I have informed only one person and spurred their interest to learn more, then all my work would have been worth it. The Somali people have a right to know this information.


Is it well received, mildly debated, or heck...even strongly opposed? I see none of this in your thread yet u continue to post more material.


If you are talking about this thread, then at the time of your post you were the second person to comment. Infant Genital Mutilation is a very controversial topic. In my Male Genital Mutilation thread: https://www.somalinet.com/forums/viewto ... 8&t=355455,
there were many ad hominem attacks on me. My goal is to inform the Somali people, especially the young people. As I have said many times, I believe the TORTURE and Genital MUTILATION of female and male children is the biggest calamity faced by the Somali people. This INHUMANITY has far-reaching effects on society!

Because the subject of Circumcision is very controversial, and the erroneous belief that it is obligatory in Islam, I do not talk about myself. I will say this, however, I haven't and will not TORTURE and MUTILATE another human being! Praise be to Allah!

You're welcome.

I beg and implore you, please protect your children! Babies suffer Near-Death Excruciating Pain!!! Please do more research! I was saddened when I first read your post. God, I hope it's not too late!!

Hold Your Children Tight.


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Re: Infant Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Tue Aug 16, 2016 9:00 am

Liberation from fear. Absence of pain. Innocence maintained.




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Re: Infant Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Mon Sep 12, 2016 11:52 am

LOVE.

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Re: Infant Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Mon Sep 12, 2016 11:53 am

LIGHT.

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Re: Infant Genital Mutilation

Postby LoveandLight » Mon Sep 12, 2016 11:54 am

COMPASSION.


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