gurey25 wrote:i dont think there where any oromo in the hargiesa area, the oromo attempted to expand south but where checked by the Ajuran, ( a theory on how the ajuran created a centralized state is that it was their role as imaam united different somali groups to resist oromo raids consolidating power and become the gareen dynasty).
They then had to wait for Adal and the Ethiopians to exhaust themselves so they could move north.
The oromos attempted another smaller scale expansion from harar towards jijiga in the late 1600's but where checked by the bartire.
The hargiesa area was ogaden when the isaaq arrived, and the Dir population moved south and west before the ogaden arrived there in the 1600's.
as for why somalis didnt develop a great civilization.. its mostly to do with climate.
The riverine regions are the best for this but are plagued by mosquitos, malaria means that populations remain small and there wont be enough for major irrigation works, meaning no large state structures, rain fed agriculture in the north was handicapped by climate change.
The period before 1000AD was perfect for northern agriculture, 1000 to 1400 unstable rapid changes from drought to heavy rains handicapped development and the
little ice age in europe lead to a drought in the sahel meaning you had to depend on massive irrigation works in wadis and oasis linking them with something like the perisan qanat system.
or move on to something simpler like camel herding, which does not require any state structures.
interesting both the Ishaq and the oromo claim that there was an oromo presence in northern somalia. Oromo claim that Jigjiga and Borama were both oromo lands but it is not easy to separate fact for mythology in the horn of Africa.
as to development of agriculture, it was just malaria since south india and South asian have the same tropical condition. i believe it has to do with the fact that somalis didn't have a draft animal like the water buffole which made rice patty the most important agricultural crop before the introduction of plantains and corn from the new world.
So far we have considered only climate change has a factor in civilization collapse, there are other facts for instance i recently found that along east africa the Bari coast of somalia is 40x more likely to be struck by Tsunamis that say southern somalia or even Kenya. also we have barely considered what effects infective disease like plagues have on a society. we have an example from our own history, a rinderpest outbreak killed all the cattle of the oromo and when famine had taken it toil somalis conquered the lands between the Tana, Jubba and Dawa river valleys.
The climate factor however has the most drastic effect on somalia history because we have seen it before. The Ghana empire, The Tuareg kingdoms, the Nabateans in northern Arabia, Hadhramaut, Dhofar and the Beja kingdoms of Sudan and Eritrea. it is important to know climate history especially in a fragile place like somalia where desertification has run rampant, we are entering a volatile climate stage in the planet history understand how our ancestries dealt with climate change might help to deal with today climate troubles.
Guray here are two article i think you will find interesting.
Kingdoms of the Sands: how sahara slaving trading people made the desert bloom. its talking about the Garamates of ancient Fezzan whose civilization flourished in the Sahara of Libya for 600 years and the ecological disaster that finally starved their kingdom to extinction.http://archive.archaeology.org/0403/abs ... sands.html
Galla Myth of Somali history: Origin and impact.
it talks of the misrepresentation of somalis history by Europeans who build a theory that somalis evicted oromo out of somalia. divorcing somalis from their lands and make us invader rather than the indigenous people. interesting it introduces two people the Tiirii and the Madalle who are seen as ancestors of the somali people. http://www.wardheernews.com/Articles_20 ... y_said.pdf