gurey25 wrote:interesting thread..
3000BC to 500BC we have very little data, most of the country has not been explored .
500 bc to 500 AD yes definitely shifting trade patterns has a major effect, coastal towns will rise and fall due to the changes.
This was the period of the founding of all the major coastal towns from zeylac to barawe.
There are no inland agricultural and urban sites in somalia form that period.
1000-1500 A.D now this period is very interesting , did you choose these dates randomly or did you have an idea.
let me explain the period between 1000 AD and 1500 AD is where most of the climate change happened.
gurey25 wrote:The medieval war period was good for europe it made growing crops easier , population boomed till it dropped in the 1350's.
In africa specially in the Sahel where somalia is , it caused an unstable climate from regular drought and floods every other year for hundred of years, making agriculture very difficult.
this was followed by the massive mega drought from 1400's onwards till the 1750's, this was the little ice age in europe, when europe froze, africa and the middle east was in drought.
The portuguse destruction of the indian ocean trade networks also doomed the Ajuraan, and all the other urban , agrucltural somali societies when accompanied by the drought.
The Somalis took to camel culture and abandoned agriculture and trade because of these reasons.
gurey25 wrote:The area between jijiga and berbera is full of unexplored ancient ruins, only the the ruins in amoud have been analyzed by western archeologists and they estimate them to be from the 1300's and to be populated by around 50,000 people this is huge population, especially if we consider that harar had the same number of people 50,000 at the time of the futuxat al xabash.They found that this urban center in amoud , gabiley was in an agricultural region, they found grains( pearl millet, and Sourghum) and traces of coffee and beans.
there are dozens of other sites in northern somalia, who knows there could be even more in the south.
like you said somalis have abandoned "civilization" i.e urban living and agriculture more than once in the past,
in the case of the northern somalis in Somaliland agriculture started again in the 1870's more than 300 years after people abandoned it.
who knows maybe future discoveries will show us more.
gurey25 wrote:i dont think there where any oromo in the hargiesa area, the oromo attempted to expand south but where checked by the Ajuran, ( a theory on how the ajuran created a centralized state is that it was their role as imaam united different somali groups to resist oromo raids consolidating power and become the gareen dynasty).
They then had to wait for Adal and the Ethiopians to exhaust themselves so they could move north.
The oromos attempted another smaller scale expansion from harar towards jijiga in the late 1600's but where checked by the bartire.
The hargiesa area was ogaden when the isaaq arrived, and the Dir population moved south and west before the ogaden arrived there in the 1600's.
as for why somalis didnt develop a great civilization.. its mostly to do with climate.
The riverine regions are the best for this but are plagued by mosquitos, malaria means that populations remain small and there wont be enough for major irrigation works, meaning no large state structures, rain fed agriculture in the north was handicapped by climate change.
The period before 1000AD was perfect for northern agriculture, 1000 to 1400 unstable rapid changes from drought to heavy rains handicapped development and the
little ice age in europe lead to a drought in the sahel meaning you had to depend on massive irrigation works in wadis and oasis linking them with something like the perisan qanat system.
or move on to something simpler like camel herding, which does not require any state structures.
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